PART CVXIII JOANNA and JOZEF GRAJEK, March 14, 2019
AIRPORT Research and Development, Studies
CASE STUDY II
SELECTED AIRFIELD PROBLEMS INCLUDING SEPARATION LAYERS
Airfield pavement physical problems of interest to engineers are modeled by mathematical analysis.
Runway, taxiway, aprons are the parts of the engineering system, subsystem and many subdivisions.
Pavement structure is a component of the above engineering system. It is also a function of many variables
and their numerical values. Variables are aircraft load, temperature load; aircraft gear configuration,
characteristics of the materials and their behaviour under load, traffic value, number and type of layers,
parameters of soil foundation. Multilayer pavement design model and field verification was a four stages
project initiated by Polish Air Force, Airport Research Group and other departments. Project was initiated
with the study of the design methods, selection of the model of multilayer pavement, testing and analysis.
Several existing runways were investigated, and tested. Prototype testing machine was developed and
constructed. Standard instrumentation and computers were applied. Load up to 100 tonnes was possible
to apply directly on the standard steel plate equivalent to an aircraft single wheel load. This paper will use
the author’s experience on this research (PM and member of the team), developing and construction testing
machine, runways testing, analysis of the results and overall project management. At some point joint experiments
were conducted together with Airport Engineering Group from Berlin and with different type of airfield pavement
testing equipment. Interesting project and the results were used for runway pavement overlay design and applications
of separate layers between old and new pavements. Prior to this research separation layers were tested and constructed
on many airfield pavements. In many project cases two separation layers were applied, one was a pavement grading
adjustment layer and the second one was layer protected horizontal movements.
Research and development project “Multilayer airfield pavement design and evaluation methodology”
was undertaken by Polish Air Force Research Group in mid-eighties. Jozef Grajek, P.Eng., MASCE
Objective of the project was to develop own multilayer pavement structures design and evaluation
methodology applicable for civil and military airfields. Most of airports in Poland at this time were joint use.
The following project four stages were set up:
Stage I – Study and analysis of existing design methods and methodologies,
Stage II – Identification of the theoretical airfield multilayer pavements models, selection of the models
for further analysis, concept of the field tests, algorithms and numerical methods, construction of
the prototype testing equipment.
Stage III – Field tests, data collection and data analysis
Stage IV – Final reports and recommendations
Before 1939 increasing loads and tire pressures led to the building of the first paved runways, taxiways and aprons at Polish Air Force aerodromes in central and east Poland. Between 1950 -1956 all airfields had concrete pavements. Concrete for runways
had the 25MPa compressive strength and 4.5MPa tensile strength and thickness 140mm-200mm. Size of
the typical single slab was 7.5mx7.5m. This type of pavements was sufficient until new type of fighter jets,
bombers and transport aircraft became operational. New type aircraft required longer runways and to be able
carry higher loads. Runways extensions were constructed with flexible pavements. In the meantime, all concrete
build pavements didn’t meet the surface requirements for jet engines. Low level of frost and de-icing resistance
eliminated or significantly reduced operational capability. Decision was made to overlay almost all of them with asphaltic
pavements 30-70mm and later up to 120mm.Fuel spillage and jet blast caused another pavement problems and difficulties
to keep those airfields fully operational. Jet blast is not a major hazard to the flexible pavements at civil airports,
but becomes one in military airfields where the aircraft with afterburners are in service. New plan for Polish Air Force
was to re-think and re-orient entire airfield pavement industry system. To improve the quality and move the pavement
system process into the new era decision was made to implement concrete paving slip-form technology, computer controlled
concrete plants, new materials, support equipment and revision of the design and construction standards.
Required minimum concrete pavement properties were established as follow:
-compressive strength 45MPa,
-tensile strength 5.5MPa,
-mandatory application of air regulators to increase frost resistance, Jozef Grajek, P.Eng., MASCE
- application of special cement 45Mpa
All runway pavements requirements were established under tactical-technical requirements studies.
Analytical Models of Airfield Pavement
For further analysis the four models were selected: for analysis and testing. Models gave a possibility for numerical
calculations of internal forces under the loads and thermal loads. One of the models was used to analyse overlay
and separation layers.
Prototype testing equipment (Polish Air Force Heavy Deflection Testing Equipment PAFHDTE) was constructed
under the author direction to measure the deflection of the bowl on the selected existing airfield pavements structures
The equipment is a system of: load transfer mechanical system; sensors and data collection system. Applicable loads
were up to 980 KN.
Computer programs analysed pavement structures respond from the loads and determined the elastic modulus, stress
and strain of layers. Experimental identification of model gave an opportunity to find elastic modulus for each layer
of the tested structure, including subgrade.
PAFHDTE was used on various airfields and variety of runways and taxiways pavements were tested. Measured in
the field deflections of the deflected bowl was compared with the deflections numerically calculated. Thickness
of the layers came from core drilled samples. Loads transfer was through circle steel, solid plate 0.5m diameter.
Research and Practice on Separation Layers
Design Specification for separation layers was developed based on the theoretical and field experiments including
application of sensors.
Important parts of the above research were:
-stress analysis under the thermal loads
-uniform temperature changes
-non-uniform temperature changes
mechanistic model of pavement
- design standards modifications Jozef Grajek, P.Eng., MASCE
Prototype testing equipment.(Developed by Jozef Grajek, P.Eng.) (Above –load transfer and sensor, below
load transfer steel solid plate)
The results of this study and applications of the prototype equipment for non-destructive tests proved to be new
method for analyzing airfield multilayer pavement structures. Runways pavement response was analysed to determine
the elastic moduli, stress and strain of each modeled layer. Weak zones were found and overlay or repairs options
were optimized. Separation layers became a normal practice. It is an example of the economic benefit of this study
Airfield pavement physical problems of interest to engineers are modeled by mathematical analysis. Runway, taxiway,
aprons are the parts of the engineering system, subsystem and many subdivisions. Pavement structure is a component
of the above engineering system. It is
Many engineers are involved in above multiyear works. Special thanks to my former boss and friends
Mr. Leszek Dlugosz, mgr.inz.-. and Tadeusz Kupiszak,mgr.inz., both of them were excellent airport engineers.
PART CVXII JOANNA and JOZEF GRAJEK, March, 2019 Presentation
AIRPORT DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION
” Light Rail Transit/Engineering/Canadian and International Applications” Objective: Acquaint Engineers with LRT: -Brief History and Evolution of Light Rail Transit - Special Technologies -Planning and Development Process - Design and Engineering Considerations - Modernization and Re-Development - Canadian and International Selected Projects Time: 60-90 minutes + QA 30 minutes Scope: 1. Introduction (Brief History of LRT and Urban Mass Transportation) 2. Special Technologies 3. Planning and Development Process (Driving Factors; System Planning) 4. Design and Engineering Considerations (Vehicles, Site, Tracks, Platforms) 5. Modernization and Re-Development -Urban Areas 6. Canadian and International Selected Projects Questions and Answers (+ 30 minutes) Discussion Method of Presentation: -2016 Power Point Slides (laptop) Bio: Jozef Grajek, M.Sc., P.Eng. Graduated in Warsaw, University of Military Technology, Airport Engineering. Practicing Professional Engineer on design and implementation major airports and infrastructure projects including Warsaw International Airport, Toronto Pearson Airport, Major Toronto Transit Projects. Senior Academic Lecturer on Airport Engineering. Former Chief of Polish State Airports, ICAO Roster Subject Expert. Active member of airport professional committees (AAAE, ASCE). Author of many innovated projects and publications.
EJG Aviation email@example.com July 18, 2018 Mr. Yong Wang Chief, Airport Operations, and Infrastructure The International Civil Aviation Organization Montreal, Canada Dear Mr. Yong Wang: With reference to Annex 14, Volume I Aerodrome Design and Operations
I am proposing revision to the Chapter I. General, Section1.1 Definitions. The following definition for Aerodrome is used:” A defined area on land or
water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be
used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.”
Proposed definition for Aerodrome is:” A defined area on land or water (including any
buildings, installations, and equipment) or in the space intended to be used either wholly
or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. (aerodyne)”
Development of necessary criteria, guidelines, and recommendations on the specific
subjects under ICAO Aerodrome Operations Team can be open.
I am offering full co-operation with ICAO on the above proposals. Sincerely, Jozef Grajek